Height is the measurement of the height of a human being. Height measures have many units of measurement, but the most common are in meters/centimeters and in feet/inches.The study of human growth is known as Auxology. For a long time and growth are recognized as a measure of an individual’s health. Genetics is an important factor in determining the height of individuals, but is much less influential as regards populations. Average is increasingly used as a measure of health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations. There is a calculation to determine the average final height of an individual:
Determinants of growth and height
height of the father + mother + height 13 cm (-13 cm for the females) and divide the result by 2, resulting in the target height, subtract 8 cm of this value and adciona is 8 cm at the same for the final height range.
Example (for a male person):
178 cm + 165 cm + 13 cm = 356 cm/2 = 178 cm, then the final height is 170 cm to 176 cm.
But several factors as feeding, diseases, problems such as obesity, physical exercises, pollution, sleep patterns, weather and even the individual’s emotional state can affect the growth. Soon the height is determined by a combination of genetics and external factors.
In the passage from childhood to adolescence is a critical period where external factors, mainly the food and exercise has great effect on growth.
Physical exercises in excess are inadvisable for kids, because they cause the early release of testosterone, which increases the calcification of bones, causing the skeleton matures earlier, slowing growth.
In addition, the mother’s health throughout his life, especially during pregnancy has a role to play. The health of the mother during pregnancy is important, as is a critical period for the embryo, although some problems affecting height during this period can be resolved by checking if the childhood growth conditions are good, such care may or may not check whether there will be problems of varying degrees on the growth of offspring.
Yet the exact relationship between height and nutrition, genetics and environment is complex and uncertain.
Race and height
The original American Indian population of the Plains, was among the highest in the world at the time. Today various countries, including many European countries, has already surpassed the average of E.U.A, most notably the Netherlands and Scandinavia, which today have respectively an average of 1.83 1.86 m and m for young men. Given as a major reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe is the proper nutrition and health care, which are relatively well distributed. Changes in feed, as well as a general increase in the quality of care and quality of life are factors cited in Asian populations. Malnutrition is known to cause the stunting in North Koreans, some African peoples, ancient peoples of Europe, and other populations.
The Dinka people of Sudan, has been described as the highest in the world, with average height for men of 1.90 m and 1.80 m for women. A notorious example is Manute Bol, who, with 2.31 m, was the tallest player in the NBA. The Dinka are characterized as having long legs and slender trunk, an adaptation to hot weather conditions. However, a 1995 study raises doubts about such a title of Dinka, in a new finding the average height of men in one location, would be of 1.76 m.
Adults of the known people of the Pygmies have an average height of about 1.50 m.
Process of growth
Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by growth hormone (STH), which is secreted by the pituitary gland. The hormone works in most body tissues, has many other functions, and will continue to be produced, with peak levels coinciding with peak growth speed, and will gradually decrease after adolescence. During the first two hours of sleep is when it produced the largest amount of STH. Exercise also promotes secretion. The good food and the correct dosage of physical exercises are very important for the regular and correct hormone secretion.
The column is very important in determining the final height, it is made up of 33 vertebrae, though only 24 are permanently movable and never will. Cartilage discs are between these bones, the size of these cartilages influences the length of the column. There are 22 discs of cartilage that are 25% of the time.
The legs and arms are made of very hard bone, that when they suffer sufficient voltage, microscopic gaps are created. During sleep, the bone tissue is repaired through a procedure in which tissue cells, called osteoblasts synthesize bone matrix composed of mucopolysaccharides, salts of calcium carbonate and carbonate of phosphorus, making with that the bones to increase the length.
Most of the variations in height between populations is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are generally not a concern to health. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, you can then assign the problem to external causes.
There are several diseases and illnesses that cause growth abnormalities, the most notable being the Gigantism (very rare) resulting from changes in the pituitary gland suffered in childhood, and stunting, which has several causes. The Turkish Sultan Kösen is currently considered to be the tallest man in the world, with 2.51 m the tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow of Alton, Illinois, who was born in 1918 and reached 2.72 m, died in 1940. The tallest man in the world who did not have the growth caused by any anomaly is Bao Xishun, with 2.36 m.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003, approved the use of STH as a treatment for the standard deviations of significant height. This treatment consists of STH doses in patients who have pathological problems which prevent or affect the normal production of the hormone
height influence in individuals
Generally the height cannot be attributed as cause of better health and longevity. Studies have not found anything that suggests that a height above or below the average, normal standards, is associated with better health (Samaras & Elrick, 1999). Those who suffer from Gigantism may have several medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, due to the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. Robert Wadlow, grew throughout his life. In many of the images of the end of his life, Wadlow can be seen almost always using a cane for support. Suffering from circulation problems in the legs, because they are too long, compromising the tact in the region, which did not notice certain immediate injuries, which caused an infection, which was causing his death.
Influence of height in sports
Height often plays an important role in the sport, For those sports where this could be a contributing factor, the specific stature can be useful (although certainly not in all cases), since in General is linked to the system of levers of biomechanics, influencing the movement speed, depending on the physical fitness in general construction and individual capacity.
Finally, there are various sports where size is irrelevant, and others can vary, being a factor specific to certain positions.
In professional basketball, players considered basses are generally well above average in height relative to the general population. Shipowners, the smallest players, measuring approximately 1.83 m to 1.91 m. The average height for the pivots, the biggest players, is 2.08 m the 2.18 m, and approximately 2.01 m for the remaining positions. The long range high altitude provided by members is crucial in basketball.
In football, a goalkeeper high have greater advantage because it will have a better coverage area and can jump and defend high kicks easily, so that rarely, if ever, seen a keeper of stature on the professional level. However, goalkeepers do not too high will have an easier time in reaching the ground to defend kicks back-stabbing. In attacking positions, height is not always important, with some of the best players in the world such as Romario and Maradona showing short stature and in many cases, gaining an advantage with its low center of gravity. High altitude is generally considered advantageous for defenders and centre forwards.
In American football, a quarterback high has a greater advantage because it has a broader view of the field over the players their offensive line and the defense of the opponents, having the best conditions for a successful launch. Tall Wide receivers can jump higher to receive passes more accurately, however, this advantage has its limits when too much time compromising the speed and agility, extremely necessary for a receiver.
Tight ends usually have more than 1.93 m, and in addition must have large body mass to lock, need to be good receivers, the height gives them this advantage, and since I need to run shorter routes, does not need a lot of speed. Defensive backs lower are normally used due to their higher agility, like the ability to change directions quickly.
The linemen tend to measure at least 1.85 m and often measure more than 2 m, the more senior the greater body mass that can build more effective and will be in its functions. Among the linebackers is the greatest height of irrelevance in American football, with players from 1.78 m at 1.98 m, since the main requirement in this position is a combination of strength and quickness.
Running backs are low in advantage because their smaller stature generally make them more agile and more difficult to reach them at speed and shoot them down with precision. In addition, they can easily hide behind big offensive lines men, making it difficult for the defense to have a reaction at the start of the game. Thus, in the NFL and NCAA running backs with less than 1.83 m are more common that copies over 1.91 m. Barry Sanders, considered by some as the best running back in the history of American football, is a classic example of such an advantage, measuring only 1.73 m. However, Jim Brown, another running back often considered the best of all time, 1.88 m media, demonstrating the benefits conferred by the greatest power and influence that provides height.
Mixed martial arts
Tallest wrestlers in MMA, have greater advantage as the scale and scope of ground strokes. On the other hand, lower fighters tend to be stronger than the same weight of taller opponents, and often have greater advantage in grappling. Fedor Emilianenko, widely regarded as the best heavyweight fighter in the world, is 1.83 m tall, and opponents who defeated are almost exclusively taller than he, being the most notable example Hong-Man Choi, 2.18 m, beaten by Fedor by submission with an armbar.
Senior swimmers with long arms are able to achieve a better leverage effect and acceleration in the water, and also the water resistance decreases with increased stature), reducing the intensity of the hydrodynamic drag force that opposes the displacement of the swimmer. Michael Phelps, with 1.93 m, won eight gold medals in the 2008 Olympics. The average height of 8 finalists of the 100 metres freestyle at the Olympic final in E.U.A was 1.96 m. Another example is Michael Gross, German swimmer of the Decade of 1980, with 2.01 m, was winner of three gold medals in the Olympic Games.
Although the NHL history is filled with lower players who have reached greatness (Theo Fleury of 1.65 m) and of medium stature like Martin St. Louis, 1.75 m and Sidney Crosby, of 1.80 m, later, players above 1.80 m and more than 90 kg were used, due to having longer range and be able to carry out corporal punishment necessary.
In artistic gymnastics, it is advantageous to be smaller. A low center of gravity can make an athlete better balance. An athlete may also have an easier time to manipulate your body in the air.
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